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Is there evidence to suggest that CBT interventions work

Is there proof to propose that CBT mediations work This evaluative report fundamentally surveys research put together proof with respect ...

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Is there evidence to suggest that CBT interventions work

Is there proof to propose that CBT mediations work This evaluative report fundamentally surveys research put together proof with respect to the viability of intellectual social treatment (CBT) mediations with regards to Criminal Justice. This includes assessment of various examinations which are a piece of the purported What Works? plan (McGuire, 2005) which expects to decrease reoffending and bolster probation management. It is discovered that the proof for CBT is steady of its utilization however that its viability can be subject to a few factors, for example, connection between the probationer and specialist, while CBT projects may veil the genuine troubles which probationers experience. Watchwords Probation, wrongdoer, desistance, social setting, research, what works, proof based practice Presentation This evaluative report fundamentally surveys research put together proof with respect to the viability of subjective conduct treatment (CBT) intercessions with regards to Criminal Justice. The guideline of CBT as a mediation is to change the guilty parties mentalities and conduct by utilizing psychological social strategies. These techniques center around considering and changing deduction so as to evade examples of conduct that can prompt re-affronting (Andrews, 1995). I am right now a Criminal Justice specialist and have picked the job of CBT as a training mediation in probation for a few reasons. The longstanding way to deal with criminal conduct across criminal equity frameworks has been burden by means of the courts of discipline, for example, money related punishment or loss of freedom. While this conveys retaliation, discipline doesn't really diminish levels of wrongdoing (Hollin, 2002) and an option is guilty party recovery for which there is space for improvement. This methodology looks to achieve singular change in the wrongdoer and to decrease the likliehood of carrying out further wrongdoings. Studies checked on are a piece of the supposed What Works? research plan which expects to explore how to decrease reoffending and bolster probation oversight. The What Works way to deal with guilty party recovery has been expounded on since the 1980s and result assessments show that this methodology may have a little however constructive outcome in lessening reoffending (McGuire and Priestley, 1995). The What Works research writing demonstrates that subjective social mediations produce the best impact (Vennard, Hedderman and Sugg, 1997; Hollin, 1999; Cooke and Philip, 2000; Redondo, Sanchez-Meca and Garrido, 1999). In strategy terms, probation in Scotland contrasts incredibly from that in England and Wales. This has been because of political, administrative and social changes which have happened over the most recent thirty years and all the more as of late in 1991, the presentation of 100% subsidizing and National Objectives and Standards (NOS). Considering these issues/factors, the particular inquiry directing the quest for writing Is there proof to propose that CBT intercessions work in trial practice? The quest for proof to address this inquiry included the utilization of databases ASSIA, Planex Cambridge and Discover. Explicit diary databases were likewise counseled utilizing word look. These incorporated The Howard Journal, Probation Journal, Criminology and Criminal Justice Journal and British Journal of Social Work. This pursuit yielded the most suitable and applicable exploration examines appropriate to the inquiry. Writing Review This segment fundamentally audits 6 examinations. One reports on a Scottish report inside which administration clients thought about their optimal model of the social specialist (Barry, 2000). Three examinations were subjective (Rex, 1999; McNeill, 2000; and McCulloch, 2005) while the staying two were surveys of writing (Vanstone, 2000; and Stanley, 2009). The proof is evaluated under a few key topics. What adds to the adequacy of CBT? As a way to deal with working with wrongdoers, psychological social alteration presumes that individuals who insult are formed by their condition and have neglected to obtain certain intellectual aptitudes or have learned improper methods of carrying on, believing is incautious and inflexible rather than adaptable. Intellectual challenges are found out as opposed to intrinsic in individuals who affront. The quest for viability in the conveyance and improvement of network based removals has been seen in the course of the most recent three decades. In spite of the fact that, there has been progress in what is powerful in supporting desistance from wrongdoing through analysts, experts and government clergymen to carry hypothetical information to rehearse examination, strategy and practice features that information achievement despite everything stays being developed. Perceiving the expansiveness of scholastic and observational writing in investigating this subject, the audit is purposely restricted and draws on the adequacy examination and desistance writing. Every one of the investigations depict a concise history of What Works in probation. The reason was that intellectual conduct projects would convey decreases of somewhere in the range of 5 and 10 percent in reoffending. The proof for this recommendation depended to a great extent on American and Canadian examination and meta-investigations of generally little scope contemplates (Lipsey, 1992). Examination contemplates recommended that in addition to the fact that prison was insufficient in diminishing recidivism, yet additionally that government assistance ways to deal with wrongdoing decrease was incapable, meddling and harsh (Newburn, 1995: Her Majestys Inspectorate of Probation, 1998). Preceding the presentation of the NOS in the mid 1990s, little investigation into guilty parties perspectives on oversight had been attempted before the presentation of these Standards, which were educated more by the discoveries from examination into what works from the scholastic or experts perspective than by worry with the under tended to idea of what works from the wrongdoers perspective. In any case, the what works standards (which illuminate NOS) are being embraced all through the different strands of work with wrongdoers. Three of these standards are dangerous with regards to guilty parties sees about oversight which are: hazard grouping, criminogenic necessities and responsivity. A few of the investigations were picked as a major aspect of this writing survey as they explored laborers and wrongdoers perspectives and it will be contended that an increasingly adaptable methodology should be embraced comparable to these standards before guilty parties themselves can completely profit by management. Concerning the four investigations completed three included laborers being met through semi-organized meetings (Rex, 1999; McNeill, 2000; and McCulloch, 2005) and one exclusively with probationers (Barry, 2000). Rex and McCullochs concentrates additionally included semi-organized meetings with probationers just as with laborers. The two surveys of writing talk about what exploration has just been finished. The exploration investigated the qualities of probationers on management, archived the administrations of such oversight in addressing guilty parties needs and decreasing the danger of further culpable. So as to advance scientific generalisability an irregular example was built (Robson, 1993, pp.138-139) to empower proportionate portrayal as far as sexual orientation, age and geology and two of the investigations determined that all the respondents were white. The examinations differed in size: six specialists and 6 probationers (McCulloch, 2005), twelve laborers (McNeill, 2000), sixty-five probationers (Barry, 2000) and sixty probationers and twenty-one laborers (Rex, 1999). The two surveys of writing took a gander at various national examinations. This permitted the author to have a wide and differed accord of adequacy results. Wrongdoers Perspective Over the entirety of the investigations, most of probationers comprehended the reason for probation and their officials were looking for, through an assortment of means, to decrease the likliehood of re-insulting. Scarcely any probationers viewed probation as simply a checking exercise, in spite of the fact that the dominant part see was to shield them from culpable over half anticipated that their social laborers should be proactive in helping them to address their issues and for probation to be more valuable than rebuffing. Comparable to the individuals who needed assistance with issues or issues, many derived that not re-irritating was a precondition to accepting such assistance. (Rex, 1999; Barry, 2000; and McCulloch, 2005). There was a general agreement that social specialists couldn't prevent individuals from culpable yet could just assist with limiting the dangers through help of an increasingly unmistakable and useful nature. In any event, for those respondents who considered re-culpable to be a chance, there was a larger part see that it was dependent upon the person to avoid future culpable. In any case, probationers ascribed changes in their conduct to their administrative encounters was the dynamic and participatory nature of those encounters which was one of the highlights of viable network programs recently distinguished by McGuire (1995). Probationers appeared to be mindful of the endeavors required to continue a choice to quit affronting and were additionally ready to set out where they felt a guarantee to and emphatically occupied with the administrative relationship. The examination completed is clashing with respect to individual commitment by post trial supervisors. More than 3/4 of probationers alluded to the requirement for post trial agents to exhibit compassion, and 1/2 detailed that their administrators capacity to tune in, show intrigue and comprehension empowered them to open up. However, 1/2 additionally said that they acknowledged progressively formal parts of the administrative relationship, 1/3 found a specific measure of separation supportive and 1/2 needed to be treated with deference in the feeling of not being judged or disparaged. In demonstrating admiration, experience and information probationers saw their post trial supervisor as paying attention to them, had the option to uncover delicate data and accepted what their post trial supervisors said. About 1/2 of respondents revealed that the nature of the relationship with their social laborer wou

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Dantes Inferno Contrapasso Essay

Dantes Inferno Contrapasso Essay Dante was an unremarkable man: his writing and especially The Divine Comedy â€" has had an unusually large influence on not just Italy and the Italian culture, but also western civilization and Christianity in general. Why The Divine Comedy is very popular? This narrative epic poem is very sophisticated but very popular. You may wonder why it had such an influence… The answer might be that Dante was one of the first writers who explained Hell and the structure of it in very detailed way. Such descriptive writing inspired many artists to illustrate his manuscripts with images. This strong influence on the visual arts still have a lasting impression on the Western imagination for more then 700 years. Moreover, it has inspired the film makers so they started to take the idea Dante has suggested to the movies (Contrapasso is the fifth episode of the HBO science fiction thriller television series Westworld which refers to Dante’s Inferno). Thus, the episode title “Contrapasso” reflects the problem of Dehumanization and Dantes Nine and made huge resonance from Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy. Let’s see what made Dantes writing so dramatic and striking. Contrapasso definition Before Dante, Hell was where sinners suffered because of their inability to feel the love of God. But Dante invented the concept of contrapasso, the idea that sinners should be punished in a way they deserve so their sin will dictate the way of the punishment. To start from the beginning, we need to define the term “Contrapasso”. Contrapasso (or, in modern Italian contrappasso) is derived from the Latin contra and patior, which mean suffer the opposite. Basically, it is a reflection of the sin being punished. Contrapasso refers to the punishment of souls in Dantes Inferno, by a process either resembling or contrasting with the sin itself.” But the idea of contrapasso is not an invention of Dante. It is the old moral-juridical principle of retribution embodied in the expression an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth which was first formulated in the Old Testament books of Exodus (21:23ff.) Leviticus (24:17-20) and Deuteronomy (19:21). Dante’s Inferno: contrapasso summary Every punishment for the crime committed is described in Inferno is intended to represent a contrapasso. To summarize the sins and its punishment in a corresponding way people sinned: resembling or contrasting with the sin itself, let’s make a journey: by following Dante’s descent circle by circle through the eternal abode of lost souls to define the contrapasso examples that best illustrate Dante’s concept of the latter. Circle 1: Limbo It is the only place within Hell that contrapasso doesn’t apply. In Limbo reside the unbaptized and the virtuous pagans, who, though not sinful, did not accept Christ and who are punished with eternity in an inferior form of Heaven. Circle 2: Lust. In this circle, Dante sees Semiramis, Paris, Cleopatra and many others who experienced sensual love in their life. These souls are blown to and from by the terrible winds of a violent storm, without hope of rest. This symbolizes the power of lust to blow one about needlessly and aimlessly. Circle 3: Gluttony The “Great Worm” Cerberus guards the gluttons, forced to lie in a vile slush produced by ceaseless foul, icy rain. The gluttons lie here sightless, careless and heedless of their neighbours, symbolising the cold, selfish, and empty sensuality of their lives. Slush and mud here reveal the true nature of sensuality â€" which includes not only overindulgence in food and drink, but also other kinds of addiction. Thus, cconterpasso is expressed with a rain of sewage combined with attacks of Cerberus. Circle 4: Avarice and Prodigality Those whose attitude toward material goods deviated from the appropriate mean are punished in the fourth circle. They include the avaricious or miserly people who hoarded possessions, and the prodigal, who squandered them. These sinners must push rocks using their chests in opposite directions until they meet, and then the process repeats. Circle 5: Anger Those who are aggressive or idle are doomed to struggle and suffer endlessly. Conterpasso here is presented as the wrathful fight on the muddy bank and the idle gargle and choke on black mud. Circle 6: Heresy It is represented as the entrance into Lower Hell. The major characteristic of this canto is the confrontation between Dante and the forces of evil. Conterpasso is reflected in the way that sinners burn in a sepulcher (tomb) for eternity. Circle 7: Violence A fictional version” of Dante is ordered to cross the river of boiling blood while being punished by the arrows of the Centaurs. The contrapasso concerns the ones who spilled anothers blood now must bathe in it for eternity and get pelted by the arrows of centaurs. For the ones committed suicide there is a special punishment: they are turned into trees and pecked at by Harpies. If a man was violent against God, he is doomed to suffer from Eternal rain of fire coming from the heavens, and if a man was violent against Nature, he is ordered to run throughout the fiery sands beneath the rain of fire. Circle 8: Fraud The eighth circle is called Malebolge (evil pouches, or ditches). This place is reserved to the sin of fraud. Contrapasso here is divided into two categories: 1st pouch: Panderers or Seducers. Sinners are forced to run back and forth within their ditch and are whipped by horned demons. 2nd pouch: Flatterers. Sinners are sunk in a river a shit which is supposed to represent their words There are different punishment for such sinners: to be buried upside down and set on fire. to get their head (skull) twisted backwards, mute and forced to walk around the circle forever. to be thrown into a river of boiling pitch and guarded by flying demons with grappling hooks and barbs. to be tormented by serpents whose bite causes the body to spontaneously combust, but to regenerate shortly thereafter. Circle 9: Treachery The last Ninth Circle of Hell is divided into 4 Rounds according to the seriousness of the sin though all residents are frozen in an icy lake. Contrapasso here is divided into two categories: If a man committed a sin to Kin- he must be buried in ice from the neck down, but can move their necks. If a man committed to the Country- he must be buried in ice from the neck down, but cannot move their necks. There is a special punishment for Traitors. Traitors against guests and benefactors are doomed to suffer in the following way: the first ones are punished so that only half of their faces are out of the ice and their tears freeze inside their eye socket. For Benefactors sinners completely engulfed in the ice in horrible positions with the inability to speak. To sum up, we can make the following conclusion. By presenting hell in the vernacular, he also found novel ways to portray already well-formed concepts attempting to expound upon the traditional notions. Dante does not want to redefine justice, but only to explain stating that for every sinner’s crime there must be an equal and fitting punishment. Dante introduced the concept of different punishments for different wrong deeds done. He described each punishment in detail, as level after level where the punishment would gradually increase. No doubt this masterpiece of writing has played an important role in the creation of a great many outstanding works of art.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

How to Sell Trees for Timber

Can you sell your trees for lumber and make a profit? Lumber from trees such as red or white oak, black walnut, paulownia, and black cherry is expensive, and a tree in your yard might contain an impressive quantity of wood. While its possible to sell one or more trees for lumber, research and effort are required to get a good price from a reputable buyer. Before making the move, think through the pros and cons. Do You Want to Remove Your Trees? Before seeking a buyer, be sure you have good reasons to remove a valuable hardwood tree from your yard. Are its roots damaging your foundation? Is the foliage overwhelming your home? Or are you just eager to have more lawn? If theres no solid reason to remove the tree, its value might be greater in your yard than at a sawmill. A large hardwood tree provides shade, which cools your home and lowers air conditioning costs. It improves air quality, controls water runoff, and raises your property value. Your tree also might provide homes for songbirds and other native animals. Can You Sell a Single Tree? Its generally much easier to sell trees in a woodlot harvest, where many trees are sold and harvested at the same time. To cut down your tree, a timber buyer must bring in laborers, a log truck, skidder, loader, and other equipment. The buyer must cut the logs and haul them to the mill to sell. After expenses, its unlikely that the buyer will make any money from cutting a single tree unless its extraordinarily valuable. If youre determined to sell your tree, your best option might be to look for an operator who owns a small, portable sawmill. Small operators have less overhead and make their money finding single living or dead high-value trees, then sawing the lumber to specifications attractive to woodworkers and turners. Tips for Selling Multiple Trees Although its easier to sell timber from multiple trees because the profit margin is much greater for the buyer, pitfalls remain even if youre selling a lot of wood. One botched sale can cost you much of the value of decades-old timber and can negatively influence future harvests. The following are suggestions for selling multiple trees. Find a Professional Forestry Partner Selling timber requires expert advice. Studies show that timber sellers using professional foresters get up to 50% more per sale. A forester who sells trees for a living and practices within your sale area would be your best partner; he or she will know timber product grades and values and be familiar with local timber buyers and the market. Private foresters usually offer their services for a fee. Timber owners often find this expense more than offset by the higher selling price received for their timber. Find a  forester  and listen to them as you would to a doctor or lawyer. You and the forester will have to determine which trees should be cut and how they should be harvested. Your partner will also help you to estimate your trees  volumes  and value. To find a professional forester, according to the U.S. Forest Service: Contact your service or County Agricultural Extension or Forestry Extension agent. Service forestry personnel are often located within the state Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, or Forestry Commission. Extension Forestry personnel are typically located at your local Land-Grant university in the Forestry Department. Alternatively, you can visit the website of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which contains links to every states free services, often including forestry assistance by professional foresters. Understand Your Timbers Value To sell timber, you should know something about the quality and value of the timber you are selling. Each tree has unique marketable characteristics and associated volume. Your forester partner will  inventory  the timber for these characteristics and provide an estimate of volumes and an estimated value for harvest. This report can be used to estimate a fair price to expect for your sale. The inventory should tell you: The type of timber forest products you have: Different timber products bring different prices.The timber species you have for sale: Some species command higher prices than others due to high demand, low supply, or special qualities.The quality of your timber: Quality affects timber values as it does any other product.The volume of timber you can sell: Logging requires heavy equipment and employees, so larger volumes of timber translate to higher profit margins.The distance from the closest market: Transportation of forest products is expensive. Local mills should be able to pay higher prices for your products than more distant mills.The size of your trees: Generally, larger trees bring the best prices. Large saw logs and poles are worth more than small ones. Identify Prospective Buyers and Send Prospectuses You should now identify prospective buyers. Your forester partner most likely will have a list to work from. You might also want to prepare a list of buyers in the county of sale as well as in surrounding counties. Call your state foresters office or state forestry association for a list of buyers. Mail a prospectus and bid invitation to each buyer within your procurement region. Use a sealed bid system, which generally results in the highest selling price.  A bid prospectus should be simple but informative and include: Date, time, and location of the bid openingTerms of paymentTimber product, species, and volume summaryLocation mapBid formInformation about the deposit/performance bondStatement of the sellers rights to reject bidsNotice of a show-me tour of the sale area The potential buyer will probably insist on examining the timber before making an offer. A tour, or show-me meeting, on the timber site allows interested buyers to check the volume and quality of the timber and estimate their logging costs. They should also be allowed to inspect and keep a copy of the contract or agreement you will attach to the sale. Understand Your Contract After all bids are received, you and your forester partner should notify the highest acceptable bidder and arrange to execute a written  timber contract. Any deposit or performance bond agreed upon should be collected. Copies of the contract should be prepared for buyer and seller. Regardless of the size of the timber sale, a written contract prevents misunderstanding and protects the buyer and seller. The contract should contain, at a minimum: A description of the timber saleThe selling priceTerms of paymentWhich timber will and wont be cutTime allowed to cut and remove timberA requirement for adherence to all forestry best management practices Special provisions might include cutting extensions; the location of log landings, roads, and skid trails; conditions under which logging wont be permitted; protection of residual timber and other property; a procedure for settling disputes; responsibility for wildfire suppression; disposal of litter; subcontracting parts of the work; erosion and water quality control measures; and contractor liability exclusions. An easy way for a  do-it-yourselfer  to get into trouble is selling timber using a lump sum value with only a handshake and without a tree inventory. Dont sell lump sum without a timber inventory, a contract, and a down payment. Another way to get into big trouble is selling your timber on a pay-as-cut basis while letting the buyer grade and measure logs without you or a representative inspecting the work. Pay-as-cut allows the buyer to pay you by the log load, so you or your forester partner will need to verify the amount of timber in each load. To make sure terms of the timber sale contract are being met, either you or your agent should inspect the operation several times during the harvest and upon completion. Time Your Sale Wisely Timing is important in getting the best price for wood. The best time to sell, obviously, is when  demand for timber is up and prices are at a peak. This is easier said than done, but you should be aware of current stumpage prices and market conditions in your area. Your forester partner can help you time your sale correctly. With the exception of a specific disaster (from pests, weather, or fire), you shouldnt be rushed into a sale. Trees, unlike other farm products, can be stored on the stump during poor markets. One constant confirmed by history is that timber values eventually go up. Protect Your Land After Harvest Steps should be taken immediately after harvest to protect the land from erosion and to ensure the productivity of this future forest. Roads, skid trails, and logging decks should be secured and reshaped if necessary. Bare areas should be seeded with grass to prevent erosion and provide food for wildlife.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Battle Of Stirling Bridge - 2361 Words

On September 11, 1297, before the Battle of Stirling Bridge in Scotland, William Wallace said â€Å"We come here with no peaceful intent, but ready for battle, determined to avenge our wrongs and set our country free.† (Tytler) He was captured by his enemy, the English and tried for treason and for atrocities against civilians in war. In his speech to the Virginia Convention on March 23, 1775, Patrick Henry was quoted â€Å"Give me Liberty, or Give me Death!† (Cohen) His speech convinced the Virginia House of Burgesses to commit the Virginia troops to the Revolutionary War against a tyrannical English government. Barack Obama gave a speech on June 9th 2009 in Cairo Egypt and stated, â€Å"No system of government can or should be imposed by one nation by any other. That does not lessen my commitment, however, to governments that reflect the will of the people. Each nation gives life to this principle in its own way, grounded in the traditions of its own people. America does not presume to know what is best for everyone, just as we would not presume to pick the outcome of a peaceful election. But I do have an unyielding belief that all people yearn for certain things: the ability to speak your mind and have a say in how you are governed, confidence in the rule of law and the equal administration of justice, government that is transparent and doesn t steal from the people, the freedom to live as you choose. These are not just American ideas. They are human rights. And that is why we willShow MoreRelatedSir William Wallace Essay1128 Words   |  5 PagesWilliam Wallace is believed to be one of Scotlands greatest national heroes. He led the Rising of 1297, in an attempt to reverse the loss of Scottish independence to England. He was knighted and made Guardian of Scotland. He later resigned after The Battle of Falkirk when he was defeated by the English cavalry. In August, 1305 he was arrested, condemned as a traitor, and killed. Scotland views Wallace as a national hero for his role in their freedom, however the English have viewed Wallace as a traitorRead MoreThe Battle of Bannockburn happened in 1314 just outside of Stirling, Scotland. It was a war between1300 Words   |  6 PagesThe Battle of Bannockburn happened in 1314 just outside of Stirling, Scotland. It was a war between the large English army and the much smaller Scottish army. The Scottish showed they were a force to be reckoned with when they took Stirling Castle for ransom. The English were trying to get the castle back from the Scottish which caused the Battle of Bannockburn Leading up to the Battle of Bannockburn, quite a few things happened. In 1290, Margaret, â€Å"the maid of Norway†, the heir to the ScottishRead MoreHistory 262 : Early Modern World History1889 Words   |  8 Pagesknowledge of the film before viewing goes. What I plan to do in this research essay is to write out the inaccuracies in the film, and address them with primary and secondary sources found throughout the Internet. I will talk about the backstory, the battles, and the true people who fought bravely during those turbulent times. According to Biography.com/WilliamWallace , â€Å"He was born in 1270 AD near Paisley, Renfrew, Scotland. In May of 1297, fed up with English rule, Wallace and 30 other men destroyedRead MoreGuardian of the Realm823 Words   |  3 Pagesand Tay. On Sept. 11, 1297, an English army under John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, confronted him at the Forth near Stirling. Wallace’s forces were greatly outnumbered, but Surrey had to cross a narrow bridge over the Forth before he could reach the Scottish positions. By slaughtering the English as they crossed the river, Wallace gained an overwhelming victory. He captured Stirling Castle, and for the moment Scotland was nearly free of occupying forces. In October he invaded northern England andRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Braveheart By William Wallace1570 Words   |  7 Pagestaken over by England. Therefore, the stories could, in fact, be true, although no evidence proves it. As Wallace grew up he learned how to fight battles logically, which overtime made him grow very respected with the men he met. He was taught to think before he would speak. He was a natural born leader and would hold his position firmly. This led to battles won where he had very few men, but a very passionate and trusting crew because Wallace was their leader. In 1296, the king of England, EdwardRead MoreHistorical Inaccuracy in Braveheart865 Words   |  4 Pagesof the characters in order stimulate public interest through the striking of some common chord that the public feels vigorously about. The story of William Wallace in the movie Braveheart while historically fairly accurate in the depictions of the battles while leaving out many important facts. Randall Wallace added some plot twists to make the story more appealing to the audience. All the plot twists and inaccuracies that were added in the movie Braveheart have several basic areas which include addingRead MoreEssay on William Wallace: Leader for Scotland ´s Independence961 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Wallace is considered a legend in Scotland. For years, England and Scotland were at war, and behind many of the battles for Scotland’s independence was William Wallace. While the information about him, like any good hero, might be over exaggerated by some historians, wha t’s true is that he gave the country hope that Scotland could be free from English Tyranny. For years after he died, others took his place in saving Scotland from English rule. William Wallace was so famous among the ScotsRead MoreAlbany Essay1617 Words   |  7 Pagesexcavations have found evidence of sites dating back over 18,000 years. In 1826, Major Edmund Lockyer arrived abroad the Brig Amity to establish the first settlement in Western Australia, Albany. In 1832 the Governor of the Swan River Colony, Sir James Stirling visited the settlement. With the possibility of moving the Western Australian Capital to King George Sound he renamed the town Albany after the Duke of York and Albany. When the settlement at King George Sound was established in 1826, the MinangRead More William Wallace Essay1749 Words   |  7 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; There is little to no information about William Wallace’s childhood years. He is believed to have spent these years with his Uncle, who was a priest, in Dunipace, near Stirling. It is assumed that William and his brother Malcolm lived a peaceful life, being as they were the sons of a nobleman. The boys were no strangers to the martial arts. The boys learned many skills of Swordsmanship and horsemanship. Contemporary chroniclersRead MoreTOK - Does all knowledge require some kind of rational basis?1658 Words   |  7 Pagesonly would Ali lose, but that he might actually die in the ring, but Ali’s unshakable belief contributed to his knowledge that he would prevail against the much younger and stronger Foreman. The examples also exist in wars, such as in the Battle of Stirling Bridge where the Scottish army, outnumbered five to one, defeated the English Army. The belief that each party had in themselves was the basis for the knowledge that they would win, and for that reasons they fought on. Regarding Michael Jordan

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Traditional and Alternative Health Care Practice Free Essays

Traditional and Alternative Health Care Practice The tropical climate of the Philippines has made it possible for thousands of plants and vegetation to thrive more in lush forests. Many herbal plants have been tapped because of its efficacy against common ailments and the practice of the use of herbal plants as medicines have stretched as far as during pre-Spanish era, and are still being practiced until these modern times. The Department of Health (DOH) advocated the use of herbal plants as what is considered as form of primary health care and as an answer to the increasing cost of synthetic drugs in the market. We will write a custom essay sample on Traditional and Alternative Health Care Practice or any similar topic only for you Order Now These 10 DOH-approved herbal plants are found within the country and have been proven to treat common ailments, according to the thorough research done by National Science Development Board, and other government and private agencies and persons. Its importance in providing better health care was not overlooked. In 1992, The DOH, through former Health Secretary and Senator Juan M. Flavier made a health program by virtue of Administrative Order No. 12. This program was known as the Traditional Medicine Program, with its main function of promoting and advocating the use of traditional medicine across the country. In 1994, the drafting of a traditional medicine law was initiated in order to institutionalize the program. Then by 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos saw the promising potential of traditional medicines both in the health of Filipinos and the economy and timely approved the Republic Act 8423, also known as the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997. This law then, gave rise to the government owned and controlled corporation known as the Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC). It is attached to the DOH in delivering safe, effective and affordable proper traditional and alternative (TAHC) health care products and services to the people. The 10 DOH-approved herbal plants are listed below, along with their uses, preparations and names in different places/dialects within the country. 1. Lagundi (Vitex negundo) * Kamalan (Tag. ) * Limo-limo (Ilk. ) * Tugas (Ceb. ) * Dabtan (If. ) * Molave aso (Sul. ) * 5 leaveschaste tree (English) Lagundi is a shrub type of plant growing wild in vacant lots and waste land. Matured branches are planted. The flowers are blue and bell-shaped. The small fruits turn black when ripe. It is better to collect the leaves when are in bloom. Uses: * For asthma, cough and fever – boil raw fruits or leaves in 2 glasses of water for15 minutes until the water left in only 1 glass (decoction). Strain. Leaves should be chopped and the following dosages of the decoction are given according to age group: Dried leavesFresh leaves Adult4 tbsp. 6tbsp. 7-12 yrs. 2 tbsp. 3 tbsp. 2-6 yrs. 1 tbsp. 1 ? tbsp. * For dysentery, colds and pain in any part of the body as in influenza – boil a handful of leaves and flowers in water to produce a glass full of decoction and drink it three times a day. For skin diseases (dermatitis, scabies ulcer, eczema) and wounds – prepare a decoction from handful of leaves. Wash and clean the skin/wound with the decoction. * For headache – crush leaves and may be applied on the forehead. * For rheumatism, sprain and contusions, insect bites – pound the leaves and apply on affected p art. * For aromatic bath for sick patients – prepare leaf decoction for use in sick and newly delivered patients. 2. Yerba (Hierba) Buena (Mentha cordifelia) * Herba Buena (most dialects) * Hierba/Yerba Buena (Spanish) * Hilbas (Dav. , Ley. ) * Opiz Ablebana (If. ) * Malipuen (Als. ) Peppermint, mint (English) Yerba (Hierba) Buena is a small multi-branching aromatic herb. The leaves are small, elliptical and with toothed margin. The stem creeps to the ground and develops roots. It may be also propagated through cuttings. Uses: * For pain in different parts of the body as headache, stomach ache – boil chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes. Cool and strain. Dried leavesFresh leves Adult6 tbsp. 4 tbsp. 7-12 yrs.? tbsp. of adult dose Divide decoction into two parts and drink one part every three hours. * For rheumatism, arthiritis and headache – crush the fresh leaves and squeeze sap. Massage sap on painful parts with eucalyptus. * For cough and cold (serves as expectorant) – get about 10 fresh leaves and soak in a glass of hot water. Drink as tea. * For swollen gums – steep 6 g. of fresh plant in a glass of boiling water for 30 minutes. Use solution as gargle. * For toothache – cut fresh plant and squeeze sap. Soak a piece to cotton in the sap and insert this in aching tooth cavity. Mouth should be rinsed by gargling salt solution before inserting the cotton dipped with plant sap. To prepare salt solution: add 5 g. of table salt to one glass of water. For menstrual and gas pain – soak a handful of leaves in a glass of boiling water. Drink infusion. It induces menstrual flow and sweating. * For nausea and fainting – crush leaves and apply at nostrils of patients. * For insect bites – may be prepared in two ways: 1. Crush leaves and apply juice on affected part. 2. Pound leaves until paste-like. Rub this on affected part. * For pruritis – boil plant alone or with eucalyptus in water. Uses decoction as a wash on affected area. 3. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera) * Alibhon Alimon (Vis. ) * Kambihon, Lakdanbulan (Vis. ) * Ayohan, Bulaklak, Ga buen, Kaliban (Tag. * Gintin-gintin, Haliban/Camphor (English) Sambong is a plant that reaches 1 ? to 3 meters in height with rough hairy leaves. Young plants around mother plant may be separated when they have three or more leaves. Uses: * For anti-edema, diuretic, and anti-urolithiasis – boil chopped leaves in a glass of water for 15 minutes until one glassful remains. Cool and strain. Dried leavesFresh leaves Adult4 tbsp. 6 tbsp. 7-12 yrs.? tbsp. of adult does Divide decoction into 3 parts. Drink one part 3 times a day. Note: Sambong is not a medicine for kidney infection. 4. Tsaang Gubat (Carmona retusa) Alibungog (Vis. ) * Kalabonog, Maragued (Ilk. ) * Kalimunog, Taglokot, Talibunog, Tsa (Tag. ) * Malatadian (Gad. ) Tsaang- Gubat is a shrub with a sma ll, shiny nice-looking leaves that grows in wild uncultivated areas and forests. Mature stems are used for planting. Uses: * For diarrhea – boil the following amount of chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes or until amount of water goes down to 1 glass. Cool and strain. Dried leavesFresh leaves Adult10 tbsp. 12 tbsp. 7-12 yrs. 5 tbsp. 6 tbsp. 2-6 yrs. 2 ? tbsp. 3 tbsp. Divide decoction into 4 parts. Let patient drink 1 part every 3 hours. For stomach ache – wash leaves and chop. Boil chopped leaves in 1 glass of water for 15 minutes. Cool and filter/strain. Dried leavesFresh leaves Adult2 tbsp. 3 tbsp. 7-12 yrs. 1 tbsp. 1 ? tbsp. 5. Niyug-Niyogan (Quisqualis indica L. ) * Balitadham, Pnones, Pinio, Bono (Bis. ) * Bawe-bawe (Pamp. ) * Kasumbal, Talolong (Bik. ) * Tartarau (Ilk. ) * Burma creeper, Chinese honey suckle (English) Niyug-Niyogan is a vine which bears tiny fruits and grows wild in backyards. The seed must come from mature, dried but newly opened fruits. It is propagated through stem cuttings about 20 cm. in height. Uses: For anti-helmintic purposes – used to expel roundworms which cause ascariasis. The seeds are taken 2 hours after supper. If no worms are expelled, the doses may be repeated after one week. Adults8-10 seeds 7-12 yrs. 6-7 seeds 6-8 yrs. 5-6 seeds 4-5 yrs. 4-5 seeds Caution: Not to be given to children below four years old. 6. Bayabas (Psidium guajava L. ) * Guyabas, Kalimbahin, Tayabas (Tag. ) * Bagabas (Ig. ) * Bayabo (Ibm. ) * Bayawas (Bik. , Pang. ) * Biabas (Sul. ) * Guyabas (Ilk. ) * Guava (English) Bayabas is a tree about 4-5 meters high with tiny white flowers with round or oval fruits that are eaten raw. It is propagated through seeds. Uses: * For washing wounds – may be used twice a day * For diarrhea – may be taken 3-4 days twice a day * For relief of toothache and as a gargle – warm decoction is used for gargle. Freshly pounded leaves are used for toothache. Guava leaves are to be washed well and chopped. Boil for 15 minutes at low fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and strain before use. 7. Akapulco (Cassia alata L. ) * Bayabas-bayabasan, Kapurko, Kantada, Katandang Aso, Pakagonkon, Sonting (Tag. ) * Andadasi, Andadasi-a dakdakol, Andadasi-bugbugtong (Ilk. ) * Adadasi (Ting. ) * Ancharasi (Ig. * Andalan (Sul. ) * Bayabasin, Bikas-bikas (Bik. , Tag. , Bis. ) * Kasitas (bik. , Bis. ) * Snting, Palo china (Bis. ) * Pakayomkom Kastila (Pamp. ) * Ringworm bush or shrub (English) Uses: * For anti-fungal purposes (Tinea flava, ring worm, athlete’s foot and scabies) – fresh, mature leaves are pounded. Apply to the affected part 1-2 times a day. 8. Ulasimang B ato (Peperonia pellucida) * Pansit-pansitan (Tag. ) Ulasimang Bato is a weed with heart-shaped leaves that grow in shady parts of the garden and yard. Uses: * For lowering uric acid (rheumatism and gout) Preparation: Wash the leaves well. One and a half cup leaves are boiled in two glassfuls of water over low fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and strain. Divide into three parts and drink each part three times a day after meals. It may also be eaten as salad. Wash the leaves well. Prepare one and a half cups of leaves (not closely packed). Divide into three parts and take as salad three times a day. 9. Bawang (Allium sativum) * Ajos (Spanish, Bis. ) * Garlic (English) Uses: * For lowering of cholesterol levels in blood; for hypertension and toothache Preparation: may be fried, roasted, soaked in vinegar for 30 minutes, or blanched in boiled water for 5 minutes. Take two pieces three times a day after meals. Caution: Take on full stomach to prevent stomach and intestinal ulcers. * For toothache – pound a small piece and apply to affected part. 10. Ampalaya (Mamordica charantia) * Amargoso (Spanish, Ilonggo) * Margoso, Ampalaya (Tag. ) * Apalia (Pamp. ) * Agape (Ibn. ) * Apapet (Itn. ) * Palia (Bis. , Ban. , If. , Ilk. ) * Pubia (Sub. ) * Suligum (Sul. ) * Balsam Apple, Balsam Pear, Bitter Gourd (English) Uses: * For those with Diabetes Mellitus (Mild non-insulin dependent) Preparation: Gather and wash young leaves very well. Chop. Boil 6 tablespoons of chopped leaves in two glassful of water for 15 minutes under slow fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and strain. Take one third cup 3 times a day after meals. Note: Young leaves may be blanched or steamed and eaten 1/2 glassful 2 times a day. REMINDERS ON THE USE OF HERBAL MEDICINE 1. Avoid the use of insecticides as these may leave poison on plants. This may be hazardous to consume and may cause poisoning that may lead to death. 2. In the preparation of herbal medicine, use a clay pot and remove cover while boiling at low heat. 3. Use only the part of the plant being advocated. Use of the parts not indicated may affect the potency of the herbal medicine, making it less effective or not effective at all when consumed. 4. Follow accurate dose of suggested preparation. Proper amount and timing of dosage is critical in achieving the expected results. Not following those can be detrimental to one’s health and recovery. 5. Use only one kind of herbal plant for each type of symptoms or sickness. 6. Stop giving the herbal medication in case untoward reaction such as allergy occurs. 7. If signs and symptoms are not relieved after 2 or 3 doses of herbal medication, consult a doctor. How to cite Traditional and Alternative Health Care Practice, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Chains of Organizational Structure †Free Samples to Samples

Question: Discuss about the Chains of Organizational Structure. Answer: Introduction The music industry is one of the finest and vas industry which consists of various companies and individual people who are earning the capitals by successfully running their business by composing new songs, selling live concerts, live shows, different audio and video recording and the organizations and associations where they creating the compositions of the song[1]. The music industry control and operate by several organizations or individuals where different kind of activities are present for controlling. It can be creating or selling the recorded music where music publishers, music producers, record labels Studios, other online music stores are included. When it has been found as there are other organizations that perform live music programs, all of it are related with the sound engineers, booking agents, promoters, music venues, road crews all are included[2]. The music industry is one of the best business industries where it produces a fine line between the artistry and a structured business sense. When someone wants to have their own business which is related to the music industry a sound business infrastructure is one of the great ideas for starting the music industry business. It is important to choose appropriate business structure for running a business successfully. It applies several liabilities for the owner of the business. In addition when the business is running the liability is become are debts or a circumstance which represent the liability to the proper legislations of the law[3]. The success in the music business depends on the intention of the Businessman and the strategy of business plan where it will be applicable by the law. In the future in the music business industry which always includes the sole proprietorship, the Corporation and the partnership where this will help the owner of the business in the music industry. The sole proprietorship defines the individual business where only one owner should present and control the organization and make it a corporation or a limited liability company. In the sole proprietorship it is need to have the common business registration where it should be start the basic legal structure which can be applied according to the law of that country or city or the state. Therefore as per the legal terms of the sole proprietorship need to give the nominal taxes and if any other personal liable for debts are required they need to pay then it will be the owner, who solely responsible for paying the every individual tax returns[4]. The partnership is another form of sole proprietorship where the owner can be more than one. The liability in the partnership is depend according how the owners are making their own partnership, where they can set their own rules and both of the partners are responsible and liable for every business debts. In the partnership the partners can also choose the term of Limited partners where the personal liabilities are free between the partners but they can have their mutual understanding over the business decisions and operation. This is one of the forms of business where at least one general partner should require. The corporation terms define where more than owners have equal personal liability where they have the capability of issue in public or private stock. There are two kinds of Corporation can be seen in music industry one is C Corporation which they have a complete separate taxed ownership or they have shareholders and in the S Corporation the partners who are the owners of the business or have their own entities regarding the regulation of ownership profit or loss allocation every corporate meetings and Record Keeping payment of tax treatment etc[5]. The limited liability companies are another form of separate entities which was mainly formed by the business owners who present an offer for the taxation capabilities for both of sole proprietorship and partnership and it relieve the owners from their personal liabilities. When the personal liabilities are distributed along with it the personal guarantees on loans and paid Federal and state tax dates intentional or negligent act fraud or other illegal behavior or failure to treat the limited liability companies as separate entity by their owners which all are included which are the important issue for form a successful business[6]. When a business corporation is introduced by the owners or the individual owner it is important that aim should be fixed which helps to set up a corporation structure where the corporation is only held liable for any incurring debts. It is important for the business owner that when the business strategies or the investments are using regarding the corporation then there will be no relation in between the personal Assets of the owner and the assets related with the business organizations[7]. When a person running a band business through a corporation and if any situation arises where the band was not able to pay the Dept for their any live concert then the corporation can force the organization into bankruptcy for paying the debts[8]. According to the law any personal assets are completely separated from the corporation where legally they cannot be seized. Therefore when someone investing the capital into the corporation it should be necessary that the investment used to pay back the depths and in this way the business owner personal assets like their house, cars or any other properties never involved in the business. If there is any loss the company suffered it should be the corporation itself and the capital investment which are related to the organization that will only affect due to the loss[9]. The person who starting the business must have the quality to running the business according to the common business law and the owner should be educated, smart and must give their complete potential for running the business and make it the best opportunities in the marketing of business[10]. If the business strategies failed to work according to the corporation law of that state of the country then the owner of the business can face legal consequences for breach the duty of care and the acts of business[11]. In the music business the compositions which include the song pieces lyrics the recordings which includes audio and video and media where different kind of CDS or MP3s or DVDs are used mostly sometimes the music business has no interference[12]. Conclusion Therefore it can be stated that the controlling and monitoring music industry is not an easy matter which according to the business perspective[13]. It is one of the intelligent business ideas which always complete business structure and help to maintain and promoting the music organizations[14]. The business structure is helps the company to get extra benefits and determination from the business strategies. However the liability of running the business where risk and reward both are equally balanced and help to build a business career under the circumstances of the legal constitutions and the corporation law of the said country[15]. Reference Passman, Donald S. All you need to know about the music business. Simon and Schuster, 2015. Ashkenas, Ron, et al. The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure. John Wiley Sons, 2015. Wikstrm, Patrik. The music industry: Music in the cloud. Polity, 2013. Allen, Paul. Artist management for the music business. CRC Press, 2014. Steingold, Fred S. Legal guide for starting running a small business. Nolo, 2015. Krasilovsky, M. William, and Sidney Schemel. This business of music: The definitive guide to the business and legal issues of the music industry. Billboard Books, 2007. White, Tom. Hadoop: The definitive guide. " O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 2012.